July 2, 1972
The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan signing
the Shimla Agreement.
1. The Government of India and the Government of Pakistan are resolved
that the two countries put an end to the conflict and confrontation that
have hitherto marred their relations and work for the promotion of a friendly
and harmonious relationship and the establishment of durable peace in the
subcontinent, so that both countries may henceforth devote their resources
and energies to the pressing task of advancing the welfare of their peoples.
In order to achieve this objective, the Government of India and the
Government of Pakistan have agreed as follows:
2. Both Governments will take steps within their power to prevent hostile
propaganda directed against each other. Both countries will encourage the
dissemination of such information as would promote the development of friendly
relations between them.
(i) That the principles and purposes of the Charter of the United Nations
shall govern the relations between the two countries;
(ii) That the two countries are resolved to settle their differences by
peaceful means through bilateral negotiations or by any other peaceful
means mutually agreed upon between them. Pending the final settlement of
any of the problems between the two countries, neither side shall unilaterally
alter the situation and both shall prevent the organization, assistance
of encouragement of any acts detrimental to the maintenance of peaceful
and harmonious relations;
(iii) That the prerequisite for reconciliation, good neighborliness and
durable peace between them is a commitment by both the countries to peaceful
co-existence, respect for each other's territorial integrity and sovereignty
and non-interference in each other's internal affairs, on the basis of
equality and mutual benefit;
(iv) That the basic issues and causes of conflict which have bedeviled
the relations between the two countries for the last 25 years shall be
resolved by peaceful means;
(v) That there shall always respect each other's national unity, territorial
integrity, political independence and sovereign equality;
(vi) That in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations they will
refrain from the threat of use of force against the territorial integrity
or political independence of each other.
3. In order progressively to restore and normalize relations between
the two countries step by step, it was agreed that:
In this connection delegations from the two countries will meet from time
to time to work out the necessary details.
(i) Steps shall be taken to resume communications, postal, telegraphic,
sea, land including border posts, and air links including overflights.
(ii) Appropriate steps shall be taken to promote travel facilities for
the nationals of the other country.
(iii) Trade and cooperation in economic and other agreed fields will be
resumed as far as possible.
(iv) Exchange in the fields of science and culture will be promoted.
4. In order to initiate the process of establishment of durable peace,
both the Governments agree that:
5. This Agreement will be subject to ratification by both countries in
accordance with their respective constitutional procedures and will come
into force with effect from the date on which the Instruments of ratification
(i) Indian and Pakistani forces shall be withdrawn to their side of the
(ii) In Jammu and Kashmir, the line of control resulting from the cease-fire
of December 17, 1971 shall be respected by both sides without prejudice
to the recognized position of either side. Neither side shall seek to alter
it unilaterally, irrespective of mutual differences and legal interpretations.
Both sides further undertake to refrain from the threat or the use of force
in violation of this Line.
(iii) The withdrawals shall commence upon entry into force of this Agreement
and shall be completed within a period of 30 days thereof.
6. Both Governments agree that their respective Heads will meet again
at a mutually convenient time in the future and that, in the meanwhile,
the representatives of the two sides will meet to discuss further the modalities
and arrangements for the establishment of durable peace and normalization
af relations, including the questions of repatriation of prisoners of war
and civilian interests, a final settlement of Jammu and Kashmir and the
resumption of diplomatic relations.
Republic of India
(Zulfikar Ali Bhutto)
Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Simla, the 2nd July, 1972